Archive for October, 2006


On the theory of gravitationally-frozen superdense and supermassive objects

Zahid Zakir [1]


     The black hole paradigm (BHP) is based on an implicit assumption that the collapse occurs quickly not only on proper times of falling particles, but on world time also, and that information about that is retarded only. According to general relativity (GR) in a static field there is a global simultaneity of events, the proper times are slowed down with respect to world time absolutely and these facts are confirmed experimentally by clocks long-term located at different heights. Therefore, the basic assumption of BHP is incompatible with GR, the collapse occurs not quickly, but it needs in really infinity world time. For a falling particle at any finite world time moment its corresponding proper time moment is insufficient for reaching the gravitational radius of the source. As the result, in GR real horizons and physical singularities do not exist, the black holes never be formed. Instead of the black holes GR predicts the gravitationally-frozen states of matter in superdense and supermassive objects. Particles inside of any compact object are frozen by the strong gravitational field so that the time dilation is finite, but maximal at the center and minimal on the surface. In cosmology this fact solves the problem of an initial singularity, in astrophysics allows one to construct a theory of superdense stars, quasars and AGN, in particle physics leads to the ultraviolet finiteness of quantum fields, including quantum gravity.

  PACS:  95.30.Sf, 97.60.Lf, 98.35.Jk, 98.54.-h, 98.80.-k, 04.60.-m

  Key words: black holes, horizon, collapse, singularities, quark stars, quasars, active galactic nuclei, cosmology, quantum gravity

Vol. 1, No 3,  p. 42 – 60, v1,       20 October 2006

Online: TPAC: 2119-004 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.2119-004

[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan