Archive

Archive for the ‘2012 Volume 7’ Category

Jul
01

Dialogues about a fate of stars:

from black holes to frozars

Zahid Zakir [1]

Abstract

    Sagredo and Salviati – two friends of Galilee – almost 400 years ago in Europe disputed about motion of planets, after which the heliocentric system have been understood and accepted almost by all. Their descendants, who were friends too, almost 40 years ago in America, disputed about a gravitational collapse of stars, after which the black holes have been understood and accepted, but not by all. Among not accepted were one of friends and as a result recently their dialogue has been continued in Asia, but already about a choice between black holes and frozars. After that frozars began to be understood and accepted almost by all who had read record of this dialogue and for this reason it is presenting for wider public also.

PACS: 04.20.Dg; 04.70.-s; 97.60.-s, 98.54.-h

relativistic stars, collapse, black holes, supernova, gamma burst, quasars        

Vol. 7, No 2, p. 21 – 37, v1,  1 July 2012

Online: TPAC: 4200-026 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4200-026


[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

      zahidzakir@theor-phys.org

Mar
23

On the theory of relativistic collapse and relativistic explosion.

2. Quasistable states as glowsars and bursts at recollapse.

Zahid Zakir [1]

Abstract

     At the gravitational collapse of a star the local temperatures in internal layers grow more rapidly than on surface, while the last one grows on world time exponentially. For this reason it is probable formation not a frozar, but an optimistic scenario of the collapse when matter of a star rapidly transfers into the radiation-dominated state with stabilization or further expansion (anticollapse). As a result, at stabilization the star can long on world time be in a hot phase (on local temperature). The semi-frozen relativistic objects in such quasistable phase release highly reddened quasirelict radiation and it is proposed to name this new class of objects as glowsars (glow star). Most of matter of glowsar concentrates near its surface in a radiation-dominated state. At defrosting of the glowsar its expansion at a final stage happens exponentially rapidly (the relativistic explosion) and the object is observed as the relativistic supernova or hypernova. Observable examples of the relativistic explosion, or anticollapse, are, perhaps, the Big Bang and some explosions in astrophysics with huge energy release, do not explained by known processes. Some idealized models and numerical simulations testify that at contracting of massive enough objects growing of pressure and temperature in internal layers can balance the gravitational pull and the explosive expansion is possible. The observable consequences of the predictions of GR about properties of the compact objects in glowsar state and the relativistic explosion are discussed.

PACS: 04.20.Dg; 04.70.-s; 97.60.-s, 98.54.-h

Key words: relativistic stars, collapse, frozars, glowsars, black holes, supernova, quasars

Vol. 7, No 1, p. 14 – 20, v1,  23 March 2012

Online: TPAC: 4100-025 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4100-025


[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

      zahidzakir@theor-phys.org

Mar
23

On the theory of relativistic collapse and relativistic explosion.

1. Collapse without horizon and formation of frozars.

Zahid Zakir [1]

Abstract

        In general relativity (GR) the surface of a spherical object as an extended body is defined on hypersurfaces of simultaneity t=const and the proper time on the object’s surface at any moment is strongly related to the finite world time moment t (astronomical epoch). At any finite t this proper time moment always is less than its value at which the surface would cross the gravitational radius in the Newtonian theory. It is shown that in GR, as the surface closely approaches the gravitational radius, the proper times rapidly freeze (in terms of t) firstly at the center, where the time delay is maximal, then at higher layers, and that the surface freezes after all layers beyond the gravitational radius. The freezing of all processes in entire volume means the practically stopping of the collapse also. Thus, in GR there is a universal factor preventing the collapse – a strong gravitational dilation of the proper times, a fundamental physical phenomenon with which GR mainly differs from the Newtonian theory. For this reason in GR the horizons and singularities, as the Newtonian theory artifacts, do not arise and the black holes are forbidden. The collapse in GR leads to the formation of the frozars (frozen stars) the surface and all layers in entire volume of which are frozen. The worldlines of the particles in the star are timelike and almost parallel to the taxis and between each other. The formation of the frozars is shown for the standard idealized models of the collapse – a thin dust shell, a dust ball, a star of constant density and a star with ultrarelativistic matter. The astrophysical consequences of the theory of collapsed stars as frozars of GR are shortly discussed.

PACS: 04.20.Dg;  04.70.-s;  97.60.-s,  98.54.-h

Key words: relativistic stars, collapse, frozars, black holes, horizon, singularity, time dilation

Vol. 7, No 1, p. 1 – 13, v1,  23 March 2012

Online: TPAC: 4100-024 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4100-024