Archive for the ‘No 1’ Category


General relativity constrains proper times and predicts frozen stars instead of black holes

Zahid Zakir [1]


     In a static gravitational field an intersection of a worldline by a global hypersurface of simultaneity t=const gives an invariant constraint relating the proper time of this event by t. Since at any finite t such constrained proper time intervals are less than required for crossing a horizon, general relativity predicts the gravitational freezing of proper times in stars with timelike or null geodesics everywhere. The time dilation stabilizes contracting massive stars by freezing, which is maximal but finite at the centre and the surface is frozen near the gravitational radius. The frozen stars (frozars) slowly defrost due to emissions and external interactions, the internal phase transitions can initiate refreezing with bursts and explosions.

PACS: 04.20.Dg;  04.70.-s;  97.60.-s,  98.54.-h

Key words: relativistic stars, black holes, quasars, active galactic nuclei, collapse, horizon, singularities

Vol. 2, No 1,  p. 1 – 8, v1,   2 November 2007

Online: TPAC: 2497-006 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.2497-006

[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan