Archive for the ‘5. Cosmology’ Category


On the theory of relativistic collapse and relativistic explosion. 

3. The frozar and frozon crystallizations.

 Zahid Zakir [1]


     A free radial falling to a common centre of inertia of two and more identical gravitationally-frozen objects – frozars (stellar mass or supermassive) and frozons (particles of Planck energy, the fluctuations of which are frozen in the self-gravitational field) is studied. Two frozars cannot merge and freeze without touch of nearest points of their surfaces, and the distances between the system’s centre of inertia and centers of frozars always exceed the system’s gravitational radius. The gravitational radius of a system of three and more frozars always several times exceeds the gravitational radius of each of frozars. For this reason the freely falling frozars freeze by forming a frozar supercrystal, where mean distances between the surfaces of frozars several times exceed a radius each of them. Frozons also cannot merge and only form frozen complexes, mainly as pairs of particle-antiparticle, up to frozon microcrystals. Frozar and frozon crystallizations appear as two fundamental general relativistic phenomena determining the structure of most compact and most massive objects in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In astrophysics supermassive collapsed objects at the centre of stellar clusters, galaxies and quasars most probably are supercrystals of frozars and ordinary matter. During cosmological expansion primordial frozon and frozar crystals were centers of inhomogeneities, and also appear as a dark matter. If there will be a contraction stage, the Universe as whole also will freeze in a state of global frozar crystal and the contraction will stop, so there the cosmological singularity will absent and entropy of the Universe will be conserved. In particle physics the vertexes of interaction with frozons do not exist and compact objects having energy exceeding the Planck energy are “atoms”, “molecules” and microcrystals of frozons.

PACS:  04.20.Dg; 04.70.-s; 97.60.-s, 98.54.-h  

Key words: relativistic stars, collapse, frozars, black holes 

Vol. 8, No 3, p. 62 – 66, v1,   13 November 2013

Online: TPAC: 4700-032 v1,  13 November 2013;   DOI: 10.9751/TPAС.4700-032

[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan


The model of the closed Universe with relativistic effects of extra dimension

 Zahid Zakir [1]


     In the standard general relativity (GR) a closed universe as a 3-sphere exists only at embedding into a real 4-space and a hypersurface of simultaneity of the universe is spherically-symmetric only in a global static frame where the center of the 3-sphere is rested. For this reason the evolution of the universe is described in a world time of this frame, where Einstein’s equations with homogeneous matter (without dark energy) have simple exact solutions. The radial speed of 3-sphere leads to the relativistic delay of proper times, which then leads to new expansion law and relativistic redshift. By using the initial data – present radius and velocity of expansion – other properties and evolution of the Universe are predicted and are in agreement with the data. As the result, from standard GR and observations follow that the Universe is closed, slowing down and the extra dimension probably really exist. The evolution is described for all epochs by taking into account pressure in earlier epochs. The nucleosynthesis and recombination occur at sufficiently smaller concentrations, but during sufficienly longer times. It is shown that the model is free on the cosmological problems of former approaches.

PACS:  04.20.Cv, 98.80.-k, 98.80.Jk 95.30.Sf, 97.60.Lf, 98.35.Jk, 98.54.-h, 98.80.-k, 04.60.-m  

Key words: cosmological models, redshift, supernovae, Big Bang, nucleosynthesis, recombination, cosmic microwave background, cosmological problems  

Vol. 8, No 2, p. 37 – 61, v1,               15 May 2013

Online: TPAC: 4518-031 v1,             15 May 2013; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4518-031

[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan