Archive for the ‘4. Astrophysics’ Category


On the theory of relativistic collapse and relativistic explosion. 

3. The frozar and frozon crystallizations.

 Zahid Zakir [1]


     A free radial falling to a common centre of inertia of two and more identical gravitationally-frozen objects – frozars (stellar mass or supermassive) and frozons (particles of Planck energy, the fluctuations of which are frozen in the self-gravitational field) is studied. Two frozars cannot merge and freeze without touch of nearest points of their surfaces, and the distances between the system’s centre of inertia and centers of frozars always exceed the system’s gravitational radius. The gravitational radius of a system of three and more frozars always several times exceeds the gravitational radius of each of frozars. For this reason the freely falling frozars freeze by forming a frozar supercrystal, where mean distances between the surfaces of frozars several times exceed a radius each of them. Frozons also cannot merge and only form frozen complexes, mainly as pairs of particle-antiparticle, up to frozon microcrystals. Frozar and frozon crystallizations appear as two fundamental general relativistic phenomena determining the structure of most compact and most massive objects in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In astrophysics supermassive collapsed objects at the centre of stellar clusters, galaxies and quasars most probably are supercrystals of frozars and ordinary matter. During cosmological expansion primordial frozon and frozar crystals were centers of inhomogeneities, and also appear as a dark matter. If there will be a contraction stage, the Universe as whole also will freeze in a state of global frozar crystal and the contraction will stop, so there the cosmological singularity will absent and entropy of the Universe will be conserved. In particle physics the vertexes of interaction with frozons do not exist and compact objects having energy exceeding the Planck energy are “atoms”, “molecules” and microcrystals of frozons.

PACS:  04.20.Dg; 04.70.-s; 97.60.-s, 98.54.-h  

Key words: relativistic stars, collapse, frozars, black holes 

Vol. 8, No 3, p. 62 – 66, v1,   13 November 2013

Online: TPAC: 4700-032 v1,  13 November 2013;   DOI: 10.9751/TPAС.4700-032

[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan


Dialogues about a fate of stars:

from black holes to frozars

Zahid Zakir [1]


    Sagredo and Salviati – two friends of Galilee – almost 400 years ago in Europe disputed about motion of planets, after which the heliocentric system have been understood and accepted almost by all. Their descendants, who were friends too, almost 40 years ago in America, disputed about a gravitational collapse of stars, after which the black holes have been understood and accepted, but not by all. Among not accepted were one of friends and as a result recently their dialogue has been continued in Asia, but already about a choice between black holes and frozars. After that frozars began to be understood and accepted almost by all who had read record of this dialogue and for this reason it is presenting for wider public also.

PACS: 04.20.Dg; 04.70.-s; 97.60.-s, 98.54.-h

relativistic stars, collapse, black holes, supernova, gamma burst, quasars        

Vol. 7, No 2, p. 21 – 37, v1,  1 July 2012

Online: TPAC: 4200-026 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4200-026

[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan