Home » 2012 Volume 7, 3. Relativity and gravitation, 4. Astrophysics » TPAC: 4100-024 v2, Vol. 7, p. 1–13
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23

On the theory of relativistic collapse and relativistic explosion.

1. Collapse without horizon and formation of frozars.

Zahid Zakir [1]

Abstract

        In general relativity (GR) the surface of a spherical object as an extended body is defined on hypersurfaces of simultaneity t=const and the proper time on the object’s surface at any moment is strongly related to the finite world time moment t (astronomical epoch). At any finite t this proper time moment always is less than its value at which the surface would cross the gravitational radius in the Newtonian theory. It is shown that in GR, as the surface closely approaches the gravitational radius, the proper times rapidly freeze (in terms of t) firstly at the center, where the time delay is maximal, then at higher layers, and that the surface freezes after all layers beyond the gravitational radius. The freezing of all processes in entire volume means the practically stopping of the collapse also. Thus, in GR there is a universal factor preventing the collapse – a strong gravitational dilation of the proper times, a fundamental physical phenomenon with which GR mainly differs from the Newtonian theory. For this reason in GR the horizons and singularities, as the Newtonian theory artifacts, do not arise and the black holes are forbidden. The collapse in GR leads to the formation of the frozars (frozen stars) the surface and all layers in entire volume of which are frozen. The worldlines of the particles in the star are timelike and almost parallel to the taxis and between each other. The formation of the frozars is shown for the standard idealized models of the collapse – a thin dust shell, a dust ball, a star of constant density and a star with ultrarelativistic matter. The astrophysical consequences of the theory of collapsed stars as frozars of GR are shortly discussed.

PACS: 04.20.Dg;  04.70.-s;  97.60.-s,  98.54.-h

Key words: relativistic stars, collapse, frozars, black holes, horizon, singularity, time dilation

Vol. 7, No 1, p. 1 – 13, v1,  23 March 2012

Online: TPAC: 4100-024 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4100-024


4 Responses to “TPAC: 4100-024 v2, Vol. 7, p. 1–13”

  1. Zahid Zakir
    October 10th, 2012 at 03:31 | #1

    1. New result:
    The collapse in GR leads to the formation of the frozars (frozen stars) the surface and all layers in entire volume of which are frozen. The worldlines of the particles in the star are timelike and almost parallel to the t-axis and between each other.

  2. Zahid Zakir
    October 10th, 2012 at 03:32 | #2

    2. New result:
    The formation of the frozars is shown for the standard idealized models of the collapse – a thin dust shell, a dust ball, a star of constant density and a star with ultrarelativistic matter.

  3. Zahid Zakir
    October 10th, 2012 at 03:32 | #3

    3. New result:
    The astrophysical consequences of the theory of collapsed stars as frozars of GR are shortly discussed.

  4. Zahid Zakir

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