Nov
02

General relativity constrains proper times and predicts frozen stars instead of black holes

Zahid Zakir [1]

Abstract

     In a static gravitational field an intersection of a worldline by a global hypersurface of simultaneity t=const gives an invariant constraint relating the proper time of this event by t. Since at any finite t such constrained proper time intervals are less than required for crossing a horizon, general relativity predicts the gravitational freezing of proper times in stars with timelike or null geodesics everywhere. The time dilation stabilizes contracting massive stars by freezing, which is maximal but finite at the centre and the surface is frozen near the gravitational radius. The frozen stars (frozars) slowly defrost due to emissions and external interactions, the internal phase transitions can initiate refreezing with bursts and explosions.

PACS: 04.20.Dg;  04.70.-s;  97.60.-s,  98.54.-h

Key words: relativistic stars, black holes, quasars, active galactic nuclei, collapse, horizon, singularities

Vol. 2, No 1,  p. 1 – 8, v1,   2 November 2007

Online: TPAC: 2497-006 v2,  28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.2497-006


[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

      zahidzakir@theor-phys.org

5 Responses to “TPAC: 2497-006 v2, Vol. 2, p. 1–8”

  1. Zahid Zakir
    October 8th, 2012 at 16:40 | #1

    1. New result:
    In a static gravitational field an intersection of a worldline by a global hypersurface of simultaneity t=const gives an invariant constraint relating the proper time of this event by t.

  2. Zahid Zakir
    October 8th, 2012 at 16:41 | #2

    2. New result:
    Since at any finite t such constrained proper time intervals are less than required for crossing a horizon, general relativity predicts the gravitational freezing of proper times in stars with timelike or null geodesics everywhere.

  3. Zahid Zakir
    October 8th, 2012 at 16:42 | #3

    3. New result:
    The frozen stars (frozars) can slowly defrost due to emissions and external interactions, the internal phase transitions can initiate refreezing with bursts and explosions.

  4. Zahid Zakir
    October 8th, 2012 at 16:47 | #4

    4. New result:
    The worldline in terms of proper time, apparently “cutted” near the gravitational radius, in fact is continuous and describes a full history of the particle for all moments of real world’s time t. Previous attempts “to continue” this worldline to “interior” of the gravitational radius have been related by misunderstanding of the uniqueness and invariance of worldlines in general relativity.

  5. Zahid Zakir
    October 8th, 2012 at 17:06 | #5

    5. New result:
    Stationary compact objects do not create particles since world lines of particles are timelike and their energies are positive everywhere. Therefore the hypothetical quantum evaporation of spherical compact objects in GR is forbidden.

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