**On the theory of gravitationally-frozen ****superdense and supermassive objects**

**superdense and supermassive objects****Abstract**

The black hole paradigm (BHP) is based on an implicit assumption that the collapse occurs quickly not only on proper times of falling particles, but on world time also, and that information about that is retarded only. According to general relativity (GR) in a static field there is a global simultaneity of events, the proper times are slowed down with respect to world time absolutely and these facts are confirmed experimentally by clocks long-term located at different heights. Therefore, the basic assumption of BHP is incompatible with GR, the collapse occurs not quickly, but it needs in really infinity world time. For a falling particle at any finite world time moment its corresponding proper time moment is insufficient for reaching the gravitational radius of the source. As the result, in GR real horizons and physical singularities do not exist, the black holes never be formed. Instead of the black holes GR predicts the gravitationally-frozen states of matter in superdense and supermassive objects. Particles inside of any compact object are frozen by the strong gravitational field so that the time dilation is finite, but maximal at the center and minimal on the surface. In cosmology this fact solves the problem of an initial singularity, in astrophysics allows one to construct a theory of superdense stars, quasars and AGN, in particle physics leads to the ultraviolet finiteness of quantum fields, including quantum gravity.

*PACS: **95.30.Sf, 97.60.Lf, 98.35.Jk, 98.54.-h, 98.80.-k, 04.60.-m*

* Key words: black holes, horizon, collapse,* *singularities, quark stars, quasars, active galactic nuclei, cosmology, quantum gravity*

Vol. **1**, No 3, p. 42 – 60, v1, 20 October 2006

Online: TPAC: 2119-004 v2, 28 September 2012; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.2119-004

**Download pdf**542 kb

[1] *Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics**, Tashkent, Uzbekistan*

1. New result:

The black hole picture follows from the Newtonian gravity in combination with special relativity. The black hole paradigm (BHP) is based on the implicit assumption that, as in the Newtonian case, the collapse occurs quickly not only on proper times of falling particles, but on world time also, and that information about that is retarded only.

2. New result:

According to general relativity (GR) in a static field there is a global simultaneity of events, the proper times are slowed down with respect to world time absolutely and these facts are confirmed experimentally by clocks long-term located at different heights.

3. New result:

The basic assumption of the black hole paradigm is incompatible with GR, the collapse occurs not quickly, but it needs in really infinity world time. For a falling particle at any finite world time moment its corresponding proper time moment is insufficient for reaching the gravitational radius of the source.

4. New result:

In GR real horizons and physical singularities do not exist, the black holes never be formed. Instead of the black holes GR predicts the gravitationally-frozen states of matter in superdense and supermassive objects.

5. New result:

Particles inside of any compact object are frozen by the strong gravitational field so that the time dilation is finite, but maximal at the center and minimal on the surface.

6. New result:

In cosmology the big bang, which can be occurred by a universe of finite energy in finite volume only, and the cosmological principle are consistent only with the closed model.

7. New result:

It is formulated and proven the theorem: any d-sphere exist only at embedding at least into d+1 space.

8. New result:

In cosmology the closed model reqiures to embedding of the universe as 3-sphere into 4-space.

9. New result:

In cosmology the gravitational freezing near a gravitational radius along 4-dimensional radius solves the problem of an initial singularity.

10. New result:

On the surface of the gravitationally-frozen objects the time dilation coefficient is very large and the notion “explosion” in terms of proper time has other sense on world time since such locally fast phenomena will be observed by the distant observers as a slow changing of properties during sufficiently longer time. Such «delayed explosions» may be used further for the defining a time dilation coefficient near the surface of such compact frozen stars.

11. New result:

One of the characteristic features of stars in the Galaxy with the gravitationally-frozen surface will be the gravitational redshift of atmospheric spectral lines which not have, unlike extragalactic quasars, the cosmological nature. Probable, a part of the objects catalogued as quasars may be such stars in the Milky Way. They may be distinguished, firstly, by traditional methods, i.e. by growing of their density in the Galactic equator and by measuring of their parallax. Secondly, the part of them can possess too high luminosity in all wavelengths at the given redshift, and also their parameters can vary too quickly, etc. In any case observers should understand that GR predicts two essentially different types of objects having redshifts – gravitational and cosmological- and further should be paid special attention to their differentiating.

12. New result:

New opportunities will be opened by GR in the construction of the scenario for the supernovae explosions and for the synthesis of chemical elements. So, the synthesis of elements can occur not only during very short instants of contracting and explosion of the supernovae. They can be formed during long time in the gravitationally-frozen superdense stars and to be escaped out at the achievement of an instability point under the rapid refreezing, i.e. at the explosion of such special type of supernovae.

13. New result:

Loop diagrams of quantum gravity become finite due to the freezing of the high frequency gravitons at Planck length where there is the self-regularization of the loop. In quantum gravity there small not only logarithmic, but all contributions also because of weakness of an effective coupling constant up to the Planck distance, which then also become frozen. Therefore quantum gravitation not only is finite, but also there works the perturbation theory and the sums of loops are convergent.

13. New result:

Main new property of the relativistic compact objects at all scales, except the lack of a horizon, is that now we deal with a new phase state of matter – the matter gravitationally-frozen on world time.