Archive

Archive for May, 2013

May
15

The closed model of the universe with relativistic redshift

 Zahid Zakir [1]

Abstract

     Starting from the relativistic dynamics of homogeneous expanding ball, a relativistic evolution equation for the closed model of the Universe is formulated which correctly takes into account a relativistic time dilation of proper times due to different expansion speeds at different epochs. The hypersurface of simultaneity of the Universe is spherically-symmetric only in the rest frame of 3-sphere’s centre and, consequently, the evolution is described in world time t of this frame of reference. This relativistic evolution equation coincided with Einstein’s equation for a 3-sphere expanding in 4-space (without dark energy) and has a simple exact solution. There is a relativistic redshift leading to new relation of redshift with the scale factor which then gives new “luminosity-redshift” relation well describing the data for Type 1а supernovae at admissible parameters. By using the initial data – present radius and expansion speed – other properties and evolution of the Universe are predicted. The model predicts that the observing baryon density is one third of total matter density and remaining two third is dark matter density. The accounting of stasis effects slightly changes the parameters only.

  PACS04.20.Cv, 98.80.-k, 98.80.Jk 95.30.Sf, 97.60.Lf, 98.35.Jk, 98.54.-h, 98.80.-k, 04.60.-m  

  Key words: cosmological models, redshift, supernovae, galaxy clusters, dark matter, dark energy  

Vol. 8, No 2, p. 24 – 36, v1,               15 May 2013

Online: TPAC: 4518-030 v1,             15 May 2013; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4518-030


[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

      zahidzakir@theor-phys.org

May
15

The model of the closed Universe with relativistic effects of extra dimension

 Zahid Zakir [1]

Abstract

     In the standard general relativity (GR) a closed universe as a 3-sphere exists only at embedding into a real 4-space and a hypersurface of simultaneity of the universe is spherically-symmetric only in a global static frame where the center of the 3-sphere is rested. For this reason the evolution of the universe is described in a world time of this frame, where Einstein’s equations with homogeneous matter (without dark energy) have simple exact solutions. The radial speed of 3-sphere leads to the relativistic delay of proper times, which then leads to new expansion law and relativistic redshift. By using the initial data – present radius and velocity of expansion – other properties and evolution of the Universe are predicted and are in agreement with the data. As the result, from standard GR and observations follow that the Universe is closed, slowing down and the extra dimension probably really exist. The evolution is described for all epochs by taking into account pressure in earlier epochs. The nucleosynthesis and recombination occur at sufficiently smaller concentrations, but during sufficienly longer times. It is shown that the model is free on the cosmological problems of former approaches.

PACS:  04.20.Cv, 98.80.-k, 98.80.Jk 95.30.Sf, 97.60.Lf, 98.35.Jk, 98.54.-h, 98.80.-k, 04.60.-m  

Key words: cosmological models, redshift, supernovae, Big Bang, nucleosynthesis, recombination, cosmic microwave background, cosmological problems  

Vol. 8, No 2, p. 37 – 61, v1,               15 May 2013

Online: TPAC: 4518-031 v1,             15 May 2013; DOI: 10.9751/TPAC.4518-031


[1] Centre for Theoretical Physics and Astrophyics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

zahidzakir@theor-phys.org